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History of Cacao gold project

THE EPITHERMAL MODEL

The vein systems on the Cacao concession have all of the characteristics below:

This model has been refined by many researchers over the past 100 years. 

Epithermal vein system are commonly found in association with calc-alkaline Tertiary volcanism, around the margins of the Pacific Ocean. They forma at relatively shallow depths in the earth's crust (<1,500 meters) and at relatively low temperatures (<300 degree Celsius), as based on fluid inclusion and other studies. 

The contained metals may be derived from country rocks at depth by leaching by circulating hot waters, they may be aqueous magmatic emanations, or they may be a combination of both. 

Precipitation of the valuable elements is promoted by one or more of three mechanisms involving mixing with groundwater, boiling, or reduction by sulphide or carbon-rich strata.

Epithermal vein systems are commonly confusingly classified as to high or low sulphidation which means on one side (for high sulphidation), a high ratio of sulphur to metal (high sulphur fugacity) or high oxidation state of gangue minerals, whereas low sulphidation veins have low sulphur fugacities and low valences, and minerals with lower sulphide concentrations.

In low sulphidation vein deposits, the metals and related gangue minerals commonly form in depth-related bonanza-grade bands with less than a few hundreds of meters of vertical extent.

The high grade silver-bonanza mineralization generally has definite tops and bottoms. 

The bonanza mineralization forms within and immediately above the boiling zone, with most of the base metals concentrated below.

The presence of calcite, particularly bladed calcite or quartz pseudomorphs after such calcite in an epithermal system is considered to be indicative of a boiling zone at depth.

Other clues suggesting favorable conditions for mineralization at depth include: abundant open drusy veins and vugs in surface outcrops, and the presence of amethystine quartz.

Vein minralization is a combination of open space filling in dilatent zones near the axis of the vein system with stockworks and disseminations in the commonly brecciated adjoining wall rocks.

Stockworks and disseminated mineralization may also occur in permeable beds that adjoin or cover a vein system. 

 

 

 

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